Genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda - 27 Years Later
I have to admit, I knew very little about the genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda. When I planned my trip to Tanzania with African American Travelers, and I saw that one of the excursions was going to the Kigali Memorial Centre, I definitely wanted to go on this trip. I went to Rwanda in 2019, 25 years after the genocide.
Going to the memorial, I wanted to hear about the tragedy from the actual people that had loved one who was murdered and words from the survivors.
The Kigali Memorial Centre opened in April 2004 on the 10th commemoration of the genocide.
The tour guide did not join us inside the Kigali Genocide Memorial. He has not yet visited the memorial because some of his family members were victims of the genocide. He told me he was not emotionally ready, but hopes one day he will have the strength to go in.
Honestly, I didn't know what to expect as the tour bus I was in passed under the Kigali Genocide Memorial sign.
Rwanda is a country of mountains, forests, hills, and lakes. In 1994, genocide cast a dark shadow on thousands of lives that were lost.
The Belgians presented Tutsi as an alien race and used their physical features to differentiate them from the Hutu.
Race was added to the Rwandan identification cards in the 1930s by the Belgian authorities. Ethnic identity began to determine Rwandan lives.
Political parties were formed. Mouvement Democratique Republicai (MDR) was an opposition party. It had moderate and extremist Hutu members. some of whom were singled out for extreme violence. The Coalition pour la Defense de la Republique (CDR) were radical Hutus who were linked with the death squads that carried out massacres of Tutsi civilians. The Parti Social Democratique (PSD) was a moderate opposition party.
In 1959 when King Rudahigwa died, the massacres of Tutsi were organized. Thousands of Tutsis were killed. Many fled to neighboring states for refuge. In 1961, Gregoire Kayibanda, founder of the Parmehutu, became the first governments' Prime Minister, a party for the emancipation of the Hutu. The following year Rwanda gained its independence.
"The Hutu and Tutsi communities are two nations in a single state. Two nations between whom there is no intercourse and no sympathy, who are ignorant of each other's habits, thoughts, and feelings as if there were the inhabitants of different zones or planets." - Gregoire Kayibanda.
Rwanda became a repressive state with a single-party system.
The Hutu regime was characterized by the persecution and ethnic cleansing of Tutsi and created regional divisions that contributed to the coup d etat by Major General Juvenal Habyarimana in 1973.
In 1990 Kangura Magazine published the "Hutu Ten Commandments." It stated that any Hutu that is associated with Tutsi were traitors.
Several journals and newspapers incited hatred for the Tutsi. An editor for the Kangura advised that the Hutus need to protect themselves because the Tutsis were planning a massacre that would "leave no survivors."
January 10, 1994, an informant, code-named "Jean-Pierre," who was a former member of the president's security guard, came forward with information.
He told Colonel Luc Marchal of the UN that 1,700 Interahamwe had been trained in Rwandan army camps, and training was taking place at an estimated 300 people per week and registering all Tutsi in Kigali for an extermination plan. The plan was to kill up to 1,000 people every 20 minutes.
On April 6, 1994, Presidents Habyarimana and Ntaryamira of Burundi were killed in a plane crash that was shot down on its arrival at the Kigali airport.
This led to roadblocks around Kigali and homes being searched. Any Tutsi who tried to pass were beaten, mutilated, and murdered. Hutus who did not comply, their lives were threatened. and if they tried to protect Tutsis were persecuted and killed.
Children watch their parents being murdered before they faced the same fate. Even the elders were murdered in cold blood.